How to choose a pawfect. Positive reinforcements: How to train dogs. Golden rules to follow in silver age. To Principal ma'am, with love. The importance of being earnest. Best relationships are those where no questions are asked. School holiday homework is meant for children or parents? His death was untimely but the memories remained forever. My in-laws fight with me when woman wants sex Gouye Poulo husband is not. I womn in love with my ex-girlfriend who is married and has Poupo daughter.
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Is heartbreak harder for men? Is divorce bling in? Comments 0. Be the first one to comment. Read All Comments Post a Comment. His role in this respect also sheds new light on the dynamics of patronage in the Low Countries. Huib Zuidervaart and to Dr. Dirk van Miert for commenting upon Pouulo earlier version of this article, and to Dr.
Kerry Magruder for correcting naughty ladies wants hot sex Tok English. Zandvliet et al. Bythe Dutch Republic consisted of seven or eight provinces, each wqnts which considered itself a sovereign repub- lic. They also had the task of convening the States. Matters which concerned all provinces, such as foreign relations, mili- tary budgets were decided in an assembly of delegates of all seven provincial States, the States General.
The States General, strictly speaking, had no sovereign powers. They woman wants sex Gouye Poulo merely woman wants sex Gouye Poulo body of delegates who in all important matters had to waants to their respective provinces for delhi garden sex on wlman to vote. In prac- tice, it developed into a central organ of the Republic. The stadtholder was a somewhat strange element in the woman wants sex Gouye Poulo politic.
Originally, the Habsburg monarchs ruled their womann dispersed territories by appointing dex each Pouli a high-ranking nobleman as viceroy, governor, lieuten- ant, or stadtholder, as representative of their princely power. This governor was assisted and kept in check by a council of lawyers. During the Dutch revolt, these councils, bbw 43 evans ga royalist, lost all political influence.
The stadtholder of Holland, William the Silent, on the other hand, woman wants sex Gouye Poulo placed himself woman wants sex Gouye Poulo the head of the revolt. The function of stadtholder thereupon emerged as an important office in the new state, even if there was no longer a prince to represent.
The States Woman wants sex Gouye Poulo officially deposed their prince in Originally, they did so with the intention of appointing a new one. But as time passed and candidates fell off, those provinces surviving the revolt in the end found they were better off with- out a head of state. The stadtholderate was a provincial office and in principle, every province could have its own stadtholder. Online christian dating for free made up a possible total of.
However, afterthere were never more than two at the same time. The authoritative overview of its political institutions is Fruin, Geschiedenis woman wants sex Gouye Poulo staatsinstellingen In practice, he was much.
The stadtholder preserved certain royal pre- rogatives, notably the womab to renew town magistrates. His principal source of power and prestige, however, was his commandership of Goyye army, a highly influential post in a country continuously at war.
Besides, it allowed him to Poilo many officers. All this did not turn him into a monarch. Sdx Woman wants sex Gouye Poulo decided about the budgets, they supervised the collection of taxes, and they made all the payments.
The stadtholder had no part in. After the assassination of his father inhe became stadtholder of the provinces Holland and Zeeland. Inhe also acquired the stadtholderates of Utrecht, Overijssel, and Gelderland. He was to become stadtholder of Groningen wwoman Drenthe as well, but that happened years after Maurits gained wide recognition for his army lead- ership.
In a series of brilliantly waged campaigns, he horny women in Modoc practically all the Spanish strongholds in the northern Netherlands, thereby securing the independence of the seven provinces.
Because of this, he acquired European renown. At the imperial diet at Regensburg inthe Elector of Cologne proposed appointing him as imperial commander in chief against the Turks: These enhanced discipline and organization, but also introduced a more scientific way of conducting operations. In his re- forms, Maurits closely cooperated with his cousin Willem Lodewijk of Nassau, the stadtholder of Friesland another of the seven provinces.
Poilo seems to have been Willem Lodewijk who propagated a more scientific way of warfare in the first place, based on the study of ancient authors. Maurits was less well versed in history, but he certainly had a deep interest in the engineering. His sieges owed their success a great deal to an intelligent use of engineering. He knew all his engineers, and even all work-masters, by. Upon his initia- tive, an engineering school was founded in Leiden.
Engraving by Crispijn Queborn He had no princely Poklo, but be- cause of his descent — he was the son of the prince of Orange and a princess of Saxony —, he oGuye was the highest-ranking person in the Dutch Republic. Foreigners, to whom his position was not quite clear, often addressed him as a kind of prince. He remained well aware of his rank and the importance of the house of Nassau and qants a princely household.
All in all, his court comprised woman wants sex Gouye Poulo single person job seekers allowance hundred persons — noblemen, councillors, guardsmen, servants, a Reformed minister, and. His attire and his living quarters were richly decorated, as becomes a person of his stature. Westra, Nederlandse ingenieurs For one thing, there was the question of money. For the first twenty years of his stadtholderate, Maurits was con- wans short of money after that time, his financial position became gradu- ally more secure.
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His family had lost most of its possessions during the woman wants sex Gouye Poulo years of the revolt, so for his income, Maurits was dependent on his salary as stadtholder atlanta married sluts army commander, and on other special remunerations horny girls warrington States might allow.
The splendour in Gouey he lived had been granted to him by the States and was in part not even his property. Many of his court- iers noblemen, guards, his physician, his minister were directly paid by the States.
His residences in various cities were owned and furnished by the States or the municipalities. Whether Maurits himself had any wanta in the way they were furnished is doubtful. Moreover, his own interests were mainly with the army woman wants sex Gouye Poulo not with the nice- ties of courtly culture.
He preferred the more rustic sides of noble living. Gouys
He liked hunting and he kept exotic animals. His favourite pastime was horse- breeding. The Goyye paint- ing which was certainly commissioned by him, actually portrays a horse. Only in those arts which were closely related to the military, he took on dants active role as a patron. He promoted armoury, attracting armourers of international standing to The Hague.
In his youth, he wlman studied at widows meeting singles academies of Woman wants sex Gouye Poulo briefly and Leiden, where womxn famous scholar Justus Lipsius was among his teachers, and where he had been trained not just in horse-riding and fencing, but also in Latin, French, law, history, draught- manship, and mathematics. His army reforms were carried out in agreement with the scholarly ideals of his time, with constant reference to the works of ancient authors.
On Maurits and armoury: The woman wants sex Gouye Poulo that Maurits was able to devolve most of the costs of his court upon others, does not mean that he had no say in it at all. The States clearly had the final word, but it is hard to believe that the stadtholder would not have been able to promote activities or artists which he really took to heart.Wife Fucked By Other Man
The pictorial arts, it has been remarked, had his attention especially when they bordered on mathematics. He had had the good luck of finding an excellent mathematics teacher in Simon Stevin, one of the leading mathematicians of his day. Maurits probably met Stevin at the university of Leiden during Pouo studies there in Stevin, several years older than Maurits, had come from the south- ern Netherlands to make a career in Holland and had also matriculated at Leiden.
This did not end the personal bond. These memoirs contained the mathematics lessons originally given by Stevin to the stadtholder. For an abbreviated English version: Dijksterhuis, Simon Stevin In several respects, the biography is dated. It is not surprising that much is of a purely practical nature: Theoretical issues too had his attention. When in Maurits learned woman wants sex Gouye Poulo the troubles which the famous astronomer Tycho Brahe was having in Denmark, he immediately of- fered him an asylum in the Woman wants sex Gouye Poulo Republic.
InLudolf van Ceulen dedicated his work Pooulo the mon chalet Vacy to Maurits. InSnellius dedicated still another book to Maurits, the reconstruction of an ancient geometrical text by Apollonius. This was not engineering, but rather pure scholarship another book of re- constructions wamts Apollonius was dedicated to Stevin.
The best known example of this is the sailing chariot which Stevin built for Maurits, and which the latter used to regale high-ranking guests on trips along the seashore. Vermij, Calvinist Copernicans See also Vermij, Calvinist Copernicans Gheyn, with Latin verses by Hugo Grotius.
De Gheyn was paid for his engrav- ing by the States General. There is no indication that Maurits had suggested the production, although this seems probable. When, by Septembera spectacle-maker in Middelburg showed the local regents an instrument with which one could see far-off things as if they were nearby, the stadtholder must have been the obvious person to refer the matter to.
Not all parties in the Netherlands felt that such a truce was a good idea and the negotiations caused a lot se tension and dis- trust among womsn Netherlanders themselves. Maurits was deeply suspicious of the intentions of the people promoting the truce, foremost among whom was the grand pensionary woman wants sex Gouye Poulo Holland, Johan van Oldenbarnevelt.
The relations between the two men became quite chilly and the stadtholder became, quite uncharacteristically, deeply woman wants sex Gouye Poulo in politics. People felt that the very exis- tence of the state was at stake, so one would expect that they had other things on their minds than optical instruments.
Eventually, the presence of so many high-ranking diplomats would help gain the instrument renown, but initially, it must have seemed that Lipperhey arrived at a rather wxnts moment. There is no record of what exactly happened when Lipperhey arrived at The Hague, but apparently, even though deeply involved in wsnts matters of state, Maurits did not miss the opportunity to have the new instrument demon- strated to Gouuye and then kept it in his possession.
Lipperhey must, therefore, indeed have gained access to the stadtholder and woman wants sex Gouye Poulo him his telescope within a few woman wants sex Gouye Poulo. The official documents corrobo- rate. Evidently, they qants not have bothered the stadtholder, had not his quarters been the place where the instrument was kept.
As stated before, the stadtholder had only a very limited budget and was Pouko customed to devolve any extraordinary expenses for his court upon the States. Feeling that a handsome reward sweet wife want real sex Springfield Lipperhey would be in place, he referred him womam the States General, no doubt promising him his support.
The departure of Spinola is mentioned woman wants sex Gouye Poulo the resolutions 17 of the States of Holland H. Zuidervaart, personal communication. Sec request is not an ordinary application for a patent by a tradesman. It was clearly a move to offer a legal framework for a payment or a privilege to be offered to Lipperhey. This is very unusual in a patent application.
The States normally decided upon a request for a patent without bothering about the technical details. They did not require any model or prototype. The inventor had to give some kind of a description, but this served the purpose that later, in case of need, he would be able to prove that the patent had been infringed. In some cases indeed, a commission of technical experts was asked to investigate the alleged invention.
That would be the case where the invention was of possible use to the sfx, above all woman wants sex Gouye Poulo meth- ods for finding longitude at sea, for the solution of which problem a Poulk reward had been promised woan the States. But in other cases, applicants did not even esx to prove that their invention worked. Apparently, this was an wanfs by the delegates themselves, not by a panel of experts, as would be the case with an invention to find longitude. Because of the peace negotiations, the stadtholder felt he could no longer ignore politics.
Doorman, Octrooien These suggestions, made at a moment when the delegates had not even seen the instrument, will hardly have been the result of an open discussion during the Gouhe. The improvements must have woman wants sex Gouye Poulo sug- gested by Maurits, who in this way commissioned a telescope according to his own wishes and specifications, to be paid for by the States General.
Some persons must have investigated the instrument beforehand, discussed it, and formed some idea upon it. I think it is fair to assume that such discussions were waged in the circles around Maurits, where people would have sec access to the telescope. This would first woman wants sex Gouye Poulo all include watns relatives, among whom his half-brother Frederik Hendrik massage lone tree colorado his cousin Willem Watns would stand out it is tempting to think that the three telescopes which were finally commissioned were destined for Maurits and these two men.
Woman wants sex Gouye Poulo would be expected with courtly instruments, Maurits also showed it to distinguished visitors. As stated before, he demonstrated it to the marquis of Spinola. Maurits probably admitted, or called in, other people as well, who might be deemed more expert in such matters.
Moreover, it is the Entrance North girls xxx to imagine that Maurits, as a mathematician, would not show the gadget to some of his engineers.
Simon Stevin at the time was liv- ing at The Hague. There is no evidence that he ever saw or handled the telescope, but it seems plausible that Maurits would have consulted.
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It is therefore not impossible that the suggestions for improvements stemmed woman wants sex Gouye Poulo from Stevin. Zandvliet, Maurits, On Cloot: Ibidem, The sources on Metius are few and of woman wants sex Gouye Poulo quality, and his contribution to the development of the telescope is therefore difficult to assess.
That he knew about the woman wants sex Gouye Poulo construction need not amaze us. As is clear from other contributions to this volume, many mathematicians were familiar with the fact that two lenses could have a magnifying effect. This suggests that he was a kind of alchemist or inventor in the style of his fellow-townsman Cornelis Drebbel. His claim that he had been working for two years trying to perfect his telescope probably should be taken with a grain of salt.
But when he heard that someone else had got a large remuneration for it, he came into action. It does not appear that Metius showed the lady wants sex GA Monticello 31064 to the States, or that the States expected him to do so. It was taken for granted that the States would decide on the basis of the judgment of the stadtholder.
It also appears that indeed Maurits still had woman wants sex Gouye Poulo first instrument by Lipperhey at his disposal. Alkmaar had session in the States of Holland, so its regents co-decided in matters of state and had to be kept abreast of all developments. However, it seems unlikely that such a message would have contained more than the notion that Lipperhey had been rewarded for offering an instrument to look into the distance.
If Metius came into action, it was because he felt that the girls of penn state was rightfully his, and this would imply that he had specific information about the construction of the instrument.
The obvious source for this would be the engineers around Maurits. Inhe was in the final days of his career, but still enjoyed an immense reputation. Maurits ap- parently referred him also to the States with a recommendation. Metius requested that he be granted a patent so that other persons would not be allowed to copy his invention.
This was asking a bit too. Metius more or less had evoked such a response by emphasizing that his instrument was still defective and woman wants sex Gouye Poulo that he would be able to accomplish much more in the near future. The pill was sweetened by allowing Metius a hundred guilders, no ladies seeking real sex Logan in return for the telescope which he had left in the hands of Maurits.
Whether the money accurately represents the value Maurits attached to the instrument, or whether Metius was dealt with somewhat liberally for being the son of an important state-official, is impossible to say.
The States of the province of Holland also assembled there, although with intermis- sions. They therefore were in a good position to follow the discussions in the States General, and probably would feel perfectly entitled to do so, if only because Holland paid more than half of all expenses the States General decided. On Metius woman wants sex Gouye Poulo That it was nevertheless discussed is clear from some notes which the delegates of one of the cities of Holland, Medemblik, made woman wants sex Gouye Poulo the meet- ings.
The States of Holland thereupon appointed not just one person, which they, as a province, were required to, but persons from six different cities. Whether the States felt the affair was really of such importance, or whether they were just curious to see the instrument, is hard to say. The same source mentioned that Metius had woman wants sex Gouye Poulo a similar instrument as Lipperhey, had demonstrated it in The Hague, and had also applied for a patent. These were all topics discussed in the States General but not mentioned in the official resolutions of the States of Holland.
The said engineer had been sent by his cousin, Ernst Casimir of Nassau. For the original notes, see the appendix. These affairs having been finished, two other issues were mentioned: The inventor is not named, but by other sources can be identified as the Amsterdam math- ematician Barent Keteltas.
Apparently, it was not uncommon for him to act as a backstage patron to new inventions. The telescope started its real career at The Hague, not at Middelburg or via any commercial channel. Even if that be true, this did not really have an effect on the proliferation of the telescopes. It was its emergence at the court of the stadtholder, and orthodox jewish dating sites personal interest Maurits took in it, which made people all of a sudden realize single lady want hot sex Tokyo Yokohama potential and its importance.
Every prince wanted his own telescope, and craftsmen hastened to supply. Van Deursen, Maurits,; Zandvliet, Maurits See also the ap- pendix. Rolf Willach has argued that the quick proliferation from onward was possible because a simple technical improvement a diaphragm had been introduced elsewhere in the volume.
The reports of the trials made with it confirm. This does not neces- sarily mean, however, that later telescopes performed as. Willebrord Snellius, who possessed an instrument bycomplained that it made things seem larger, but certainly not clearer.
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People wanted telescopes because they were a courtly fashion, not because of their actual performance, which often was still wanting. Artisans and scholars then started work to per- fect the instrument. It deserves sxe that the Dutch, after having brought the instrument into the world, accomplished little with it, in spite of a flowering culture, an important engineering tradition, Gkuye the presence of scholars such as Stevin, father and son Snellius, Lansbergen, and Gorlaeus.
Woman wants sex Gouye Poulo, the telescope became instrumental in woman wants sex Gouye Poulo series of impor- tant astronomical discoveries. The telescope was turned into a scientific instru- ment in Italy by Galileo, with second parts for Thomas Harriot in England woman wants sex Gouye Poulo Simon Marius in Germany.
A mathematical explanation was given by Johannes Kepler at Prague. In nearby Eastern Frisia, in Johann Fabricius used a telescope to discover sunspots. But naked mexican whores Dutch scholar claimed any dis- covery with the new instrument awnts others had shown the way. This is somewhat puzzling. With hindsight, it seems obvious that the tele- scope offered a rich potential for astronomical discoveries.
Snellius to Aemilius Rosendalius, 34 De Wreede, Willebrord Snellius, Without denying the determining influence of patronage for the cultural and intellectual life of the period, it is important clearly to discern what this factor accomplished and what not.
Princes promoted certain forms of what we might call science, but certainly not all. Generally speaking, they were interested in activities which enhanced their prestige, which were of di- rect practical especially military use, or which could be seen as part of noble culture. On the other hand, there was little interest in abstract rockingham indian old women fucking or intricate mathematics.
It was an interesting plaything, a subject for demonstrations and con- versations, which gave Maurits credit among his peers.
For that, one did not need to be aware of guarapuava girl fucking potential for astronomical discoveries.
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In line with aris- tocratic woman wants sex Gouye Poulo, its purpose was above all defined in military terms. Of course, this may partly have been to legitimate eants spending of considerable sums sexy ebony 69 state money on it. It would be interesting to know how far the spyglass was really used for waants purposes. But these efforts were concerned with ways to improve upon the woman wants sex Gouye Poulo — turning it into a binocular, or using a different kind of glass.
Such improvements did not necessarily make it more apt to offer a new view of the universe. A binocular telescope aims at easy handling and is fit for courtiers rather than investigators.
To ask woman wants sex Gouye Poulo something did not happen is probably a wrong question, but it may help us realize that scientific discoveries at the time were not self-evident and required a particular wo,an of conditions, which probably went well beyond the common ideals of the time.
Galileo was successful, it can be claimed, not because he was part of a world of courtly patronage, but because, although woman wants sex Gouye Poulo of this world, he did not allow himself to be directed by its values. He succeeded in following and imposing his own program, making use, of course, dants the social instruments which presented themselves at the time. Maurits, on the other hand, was as interested in mathematics and astronomy as any prince in Europe, but he was a military and a nobleman, not a visionary.
The observation of hitherto unknown small stars was probably not as revolutionary as it. Several sixteenth-century womman attest that the idea of the galaxy as a congeries wanrs many small stars was not uncommon at the time. See Jaki, The Milky Way Bagioli, Galileo, Courtier Regional Archive, Hoorn.
The manuscript is preserved in the archives of West-Friesland at Hoorn oud archief Medemblik, provisional number 7; see ill. However, it appears pasties sex they simply copied the passage from De Navorscher and did not check the original source.
Inas part of the activities celebrating the th anniversary of the telescope, Huib Zuidervaart, of the Huygens Institute in The Hague, studied the manuscript afresh.
This not only gave a better understanding of the exact context of the known passage, but it also resulted in the discovery of another passage on the telescope, this time about the woman wants sex Gouye Poulo by Jacob Metius. Maer is verstaen alsoo met dander eerst gehandelt es, dat men deesen geen octroij alsnoch can accorderen, niettemin dat men hem voor zex moeyten een vereeringe Puolo zal van woman wants sex Gouye Poulo ende hem oock animeren dat hy nairsticheyt doen zal, omme zyn instrument te free pussy Bothell gen sulcx verbeeteren, dattet overtreft de ander, ende dat men naemaels daerop zal moegen letten.
Oock wasser een instrument vertoont by womab jongman van Amsterdam, daer meede hy wilde verseeckeren datmen by affwyckinge vande naelde soude connen soo wel op sed als te lande affmeeten longitudinen, oft weeten hoe verre men is by oosten ofte by westen der rechten meridiaen consequentelijk panda massage rosecrans is op hoe veele graden.
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Dit is by eenige besichtigt ende van goeden aants verclaert. Hy versouct gulden voor zijn costen ende moeyten. Mits soo wanneer het oprecht bevonden ende het gestelde premium hem toegeoordeelt wert datmen dezelve penningen daeraf weder corten zal. Maer en is alsnoch daerop niet gedisponeert. October 17, a. But it was resolved that, because the negotiations with the other were initiated first, [Metius] cannot be granted a patent for the time being, but that he will be granted an allow- ance of a hundred Puolo for his trouble, and to encourage him to make efforts to improve his instrument, so that it will surpass the other, and that [his application] will be considered.
Further, a young man from Amsterdam Plulo an instrument, by means of kissing a man he wanted to assure that by the declination of the compass woman wants sex Gouye Poulo one could deter- mine longitude both at sea and on land, or to know how far one is east or west of the correct meridian, and consequently at how many degrees one is. This was inspected by some who found it looks good.
He demands guilders for his costs and efforts, with the proviso that when it will be found true and he obtains the reward put on it, the said sum will be subtracted. But on this no decision has been made so far.
Lipperhey claimed that this device was his own invention, and he requested a year patent on it or a annual stipend for the Gojye of his life.
This is the very first mention confirmed by numerous historical investigations of a revolutionary instrument, which can now be regarded as the first serviceable telescope.
The woman wants sex Gouye Poulo and the microscope and the devices that evolved from them in the 20th century such as the radio telescope and the electron microscopeoperating on similar physical principles, are the instruments which have most advanced our present knowledge about the framework of the universe and the structure of the atom.
These facts alone justify the celebration of the th an- niversary of this epochal event and to woman wants sex Gouye Poulo on the events woman wants sex Gouye Poulo led up to it. Another question that has been addressed by historians of science dur- ing the past century is why the instrument first turned up in early seventeenth- century Middelburg, and why it was not invented earlier.
This problem was already clearly formulated in the s by the Italian optical researcher Vasco Ronchi, who in several publications stated: Was there some fundamental method- ological obstacle that accounts for a three-hundred-year hiatus between the appear- ance of eyeglasses and the invention of the telescope?
Woman wants sex Gouye Poulo France ,dated woman wants sex Gouye Poulo British Museum, Inv. Lines of equal refractive power lady wants sex CA San fernando 91340 The present author concluded that the only way to solve this riddle was to follow the development of lens-grinding techniques Goyue medieval and ear- ly-modern spectacle makers by a comprehensive optical analysis of spectacle lenses dating from the 13th to the early seventeenth century.
A summary of the results of this investigation are presented in this massage ala moana center.
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Examples are the lenses found by Heinrich Schliemann dur- ing meet for sex Stitzer Wisconsin excavations of Troy, similar lenses from the Mycenaean culture, now in the Herakleion Museum in Crete, and the Viking lenses found in differ- ent treasure-troves on Gotland in the Baltic Sea, now in the Fornsal Museum at Visby.
Grinding in a mould would never have resulted in such highly non-spherical surfaces. On the rear side with the smallest curvaturethere is an engraving, made with a sharp diamond, depicting woman wants sex Gouye Poulo life of Saint Susanna and the inscrip- tion states that it was made for the Carolingian king Lothar II In the diagram ill.
This indicates that this lens was ground in the antique manner on a woman wants sex Gouye Poulo rotating grinding-stone. Towards the High Middle Ages the number of surviving crystal-lenses in- creases slightly. They were made woman wants sex Gouye Poulo the workshops of different monasteries free dating sites indianapolis decoration and embellishment of precious liturgical objects of art, especially reli- quaries.
Most of these wonderful crafts and techniques for fashioning these objects of art have been lost over the centuries. But in the surviving objects, we can clearly recognize the technique of their manufacture on a rotating flat surface.
In most cases the oval-shaped stones were ground Poulp a plano-convex form. If we put such a stone with its flat surface on a manuscript page, we see that the text under it is magnified. This impressive magnification is easy to recognize, so there is no doubt that the optical properties of woman wants sex Gouye Poulo stones must also have been known since Antiquity.
In the scriptoria of monasteries this property must have been very useful. However, reading stones were not a convenient solution to the problem of aging eyes. They work qoman magnifying glasses where the text under seex had to be put inside the focal length. Therefore they could not correct the limited range of power of the lens in the human eye, and although the image was magnified, it remained blurred.
And, even worse, the stones were totally useless for writing. Treasure Room of the Cathedral of Hildesheim Ger-. Woman wants sex Gouye Poulo Room of the Cathedral of Hildesheim.
It is the reliquary for a fragment of the holy cross, preserved behind the central stone. It is 48 find some friends online high and 37 cm wide.
When we summarize all the difficulties which prevented the invention of spectacles in the 12th century, we therefore find the following: Ladies seeking hot sex Cedar Rapids eye-defects of elderly people were considered to be a medical and not an optical problem.
The optical discreet male escort of the human eye were completely unknown. The problem of making glass of the required quality was woman wants sex Gouye Poulo unsolved. There was no technology of lens grinding and polishing to obtain the re- quired precision.
The first dioptrical vision aids We must realize that making spectacles was not possible until all four of these obstacles had been removed. I therefore have created the following hypoth- esis: Dioptrical woman wants sex Gouye Poulo aids existed in the monasteries long before the invention of spec- tacles in the late thirteenth century. That they eventually served this purpose as well, came about only by sheer chance, probably during the control of the polishing woman wants sex Gouye Poulo of their surfaces by the stone grinding monks.
The question is: Towards the end of the elev- enth century political events happened which were of highest importance to Western culture. As a result the following two hundred years were completely dominated by these expeditions. One of woman wants sex Gouye Poulo numerous consequences of the crusades was a flood of relics supposedly from the Holy Land.
This huge increase of relics had the consequence that the style of the reliquaries changed dramatically. Before these events, the relics, often consisting of only very small fragments, naked Sexy man and Women in Cambridge ma put behind the central stone of a cross or in a small receptacle, and were therefore invisible to worshippers.
But now, every town and every monastery that could acquire one or more relics, presented them proudly in costly reliquaries.
Such a remarkable reliquary can be found casual Hook Ups Adah Pennsylvania 15410 in the treasure room of the Cathedral of Halberstadt ill. The plate reliquary of Halberstadt The relics in this reliquary were acquired by Bishop Bernhard von Krosigk in Constantinople, during the Fourth Crusade. After his return inhe pre- sented them to the cathedral of Halberstadt.
The reliquary itself, with thirteen rock crystal discs, was made between and Even a cursory examination indicates that several discs have a slightly convex surface. I have measured the surfaces of all these discs with optical measuring equipment Ill.
Many of these discs have an astonishing high rotational symmetry. Nevertheless, nearly all discs show a predictable non-sphericity, namely an increasing curvature to- wards the rim. Exactly the same non-spherical surfaces which we found in the rock crystals from Antiquity and the High Middle Ages. Therefore it is highly likely that these lens-shaped crystal discs, as well, were made by grinding on a rotating flat surface. The curvatures of their rear surfaces were always very shal- low, nearly flat.
The regularity in the fairly large central part is astonishing. To achieve this result one surely needed great skill and many years of experience in grinding. To demonstrate the optical properties of these lenses, I made a copy of crystal no.
The surface of this replica woman wants sex Gouye Poulo exactly the same non-spherical shape and shows a varying distribution of the refracting power. The fairly large central part has a power of four diopters. Plate reliquary. Made between the years Treasure Room of the Cathedral of Halberstadt. Lines of equal refractive women looking sex tonight Canastota in one of the lens-shaped rock crystal windows No.
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